- Plural of mold
Molds (or moulds, see spelling differences) include all species of microscopic fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments, called hyphae. In contrast, microscopic fungi that grow as single cells are called yeasts. A connected network of these tubular branching hyphae has multiple, genetically identical nuclei and is considered a single organism, referred to as a colony or in more technical terms a mycelium.
Molds do not form a specific taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping, but can be found in the divisions Zygomycota, Deuteromycota and Ascomycota. Although some molds cause disease or food spoilage, others are useful for their role in biodegradation or in the production of various foods, beverages, antibiotics and enzymes.
There are thousands of known species of molds, which include opportunistic pathogens, exclusive saprotrophs, aquatic species and thermophiles. Like all fungi, molds derive energy not through photosynthesis but from the organic matter on which they live. Typically, molds secrete hydrolytic enzymes, mainly from the hyphal tips. These enzymes degrade complex biopolymers such as starch, cellulose and lignin into simpler substances which can be absorbed by the hyphae. In this way, molds play a major role in causing decomposition of organic material, enabling the recycling of nutrients throughout ecosystems. Many molds also secrete mycotoxins which, together with hydrolytic enzymes, inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms.
Molds reproduce through small spores, which may contain a single nucleus or be multinucleate. Mold spores can be asexual (the products of mitosis) or sexual (the products of meiosis); many species can produce both types. Some can remain floorbourne indefinitely, and many are able to survive extremes of temperature and pressure.
Although molds grows on dead organic matter everywhere in nature, their presence is only visible to the unaided eye when mold colonies grow. A mold colony does not comprise discrete organisms, but an interconnected network of hyphae called a mycelium. Nutrients and in some cases organelles may be transported throughout the mycelium. In artificial environments like buildings, humidity and temperature are often stable enough to foster the growth of mold colonies, commonly seen as a downy or furry coating growing on food or surfaces.
Some molds can begin growing at temperatures as low as 2°C. When conditions do not enable growth, molds may remain alive in a dormant state, within a large range of temperatures before they die. The many different mold species vary enormously in their tolerance to temperature and humidity extremes. Certain molds can survive harsh conditions such as the snow-covered soils of Antarctica, refrigeration, highly acidic solvents, and even petroleum products such as jet fuel.
Xerophilic molds use the humidity in the air as their only water source; other molds need more moisture.
Food productionCultured molds are used in the production of foods, including:
- cheese (Penicillium spp.)
- tempeh (Rhizopus oligosporus)
- Quorn (Fusarium venenatum)
- certain black teas pu-erh
- soy sauce
Drug creationAlexander Fleming's famous discovery of the antibiotic penicillin involved the mold Penicillium chrysogenum.
Several cholesterol-lowering drugs (such as Lovastatin, from Aspergillus terreus) are derived from molds.
The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine, used to suppress the rejection of transplanted organs, is derived from the mold Tolypocladium inflatum.
Other UsesOther molds are cultivated for their ability to produce useful substances. Aspergillus niger is used in the production of citric acid, gluconic acid and many other compounds and enzymes.
Exposure to bacteria and fungus in indoor air has emerged as a significant health problem in residential environments as well as in occupational settings .
Mold spores can be allergenic, causing irritations of eye, nose, throat, and lungs. In response to this, environmental health research has yielded tests such as the MELISA test, which can determine whether or not a person is allergic to a specific mold.
Molds may excrete liquids or gases; not all can be detected by smell. Some molds generate toxic liquid or gaseous compounds, called mycotoxins. Molds that produce mycotoxins are sometimes referred to as toxic molds. Of these molds, some only produce mycotoxins under specific growing conditions. Mycotoxins are harmful or lethal to humans and animals when exposure is high enough.
Dermatophytes are the parasitic fungi that cause skin infections such as Athlete's foot and Jock Itch. Most dermataphyte fungi take the form of a mold, as opposed to a yeast, with appearance (when cultured) that is similar to other molds.
Opportunistic infection by molds such as Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus fumigatus is a common cause of illness and death among immunocompromised people, including people with AIDS.
Growth in buildings and homes
Mold growth in buildings can lead to a variety of health issues. Various practices can be followed to mitigate mold issues in buildings, the most important of which is to reduce moisture levels that can facilitate mold growth. Removal of affected materials after the source of moisture has been reduced and/or eliminated may be necessary for remediation.
molds in Bulgarian: Плесен
molds in Catalan: Floridura
molds in Czech: Plíseň
molds in Welsh: Llwydni
molds in Danish: Skimmelsvamp
molds in German: Schimmelpilz
molds in Spanish: Moho
molds in French: Moisissure
molds in Indonesian: Kapang
molds in Icelandic: Mygla
molds in Korean: 곰팡이
molds in Ido: Moldo
molds in Italian: Muffa
molds in Hebrew: עובש
molds in Lithuanian: Pelėjūnas
molds in Japanese: カビ
molds in Dutch: Schimmels
molds in Norwegian: Muggsopp
molds in Polish: Pleśń
molds in Portuguese: Bolor
molds in Romanian: Mucegai
molds in Quechua: Qurwara
molds in Russian: Плесневые грибы
molds in Simple English: Mould
molds in Slovenian: Plesen
molds in Finnish: Home
molds in Swedish: Mögel
molds in Tagalog: Amag
molds in Tajik: Мағор
molds in Ukrainian: Пліснява
molds in Chinese: 黴菌